Meza-Lastra, Muy-Rangel, Valdez-Melchor, and Quintana-Obregón: Recuperation levels of hemoglobin (Hb) in Wistar rats with fermented beet by Lactobacillus sporogenes



Introduction

Anemia is a common world health issue (Brabin et al., 2001).World Health Organization defines anemia as an acquired condition caused by low hemoglobin levels as a consequence of the deficiency from one or more essential nutrients (Stoltzfus, 2001). When hemoglobin levels decrease, life quality is affected (Shander et al., 2011). As a consequence of this health issue, it is considered important to develop new strategies that might help reduce the disorder incidence index or ultimately aid in the recovery of those already affected.

A strategy may be the consumption of the beet (Beta vulgaris L.). This vegetable is one of the most important, worldwide. It is recognized in increasing exercise-running performance, management of hypertension, antiradical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as by its hepatoprotective and antidiabetic potential (Bolkent et al., 2000; Váli et al., 2007; Kapadia et al., 2011; Murphy et al., 2012; Siervo et al., 2013; Vulić et al., 2013). According to its pigment, beet is used for hematological disorders. However, there is little evidence about of its anti-anemic properties (Jaiswal et al., 2014), so this study is designed to investigate, the effects of a diet based on fermented beet and orange with Lactobacillus sporogenes on male Wistar rats with anemia.

Materials and Methods

Forty male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), weighing 200-300 g and 4-6 weeks old, were used in this study in the Department of Research and Posgrade in Foods of the University of Sonora, in accordance with the “Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals” (National Research Council U.S.). Firstly, rats were separated into labeled as G1, G2 and G3 (Table I) three groups, with each group, containing ten rats. Each group was put into individual boxes with water and ad libitum. Every two days during the morning, blood was collected from their tails by drop in volumes of approximately 1-2 mL. Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured for levels Hb≤10, which is considered as anemia. In addition, a control group (G0) of rats without anemia induction was formed. The non-anemic group was fed ad libitum. Hb was determined by the HemoCue Hb 201® system, which consists in a portable photometer and microcubes. It measures total Hb in blood capillary and venous (microliters). The diet provided for the control group was a croquette (LABDIET 5008-Formula Diet). G1, G2 and G3 were fed with croquette during the blood extraction (Table I). When rats were diagnosed with anemia, the diet for the G1 group continued to consist of the croquette, while the diet for G2 group was changed to fermented beet and the G3 group was changed to a mixture of the 50% ground croquette and 50% (Table I). The orange juice was added to the beets to be homogenized mechanically through a blender (Osterizer®) during 30 s. The final formula was beet stem (20% w/v), beet tuber (40% p/v), orange juice (5% v/v) and 200 mL of water (35% v/v). A 106 of Lactobacillus sporogenes inoculum was added to the formula, and incubated (35 °C) to be fermented; the fermentation was stopped when pH ≤5 was reached. Moisture, ashes, proteins, and lipids were determined by Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, and iron content by ortho-phenanthroline method (Arango et al., 2012). Data from the proximate analysis and “experimental rat assays” were used for the statistical analysis. Tukey multiple comparison tests were used to determine differences between means. Statistics were determined using JMP 5.0.1 software (SAS Institute Inc. USA).

Table I

Diets before and after anemia induced in Wistar rats.

Group Diet before anemia induction Diet after anemia induction
G0 (control group without anemia induction) croquette croquette
G1 croquette croquette
G2 croquette fermented beet
G3 croquette croquette (50%) and fermented beet (50%)

Results

Fermented beet was obtained by incubation on day 5, resulting in a pH of 4.68±0.12. Table II shows proximate analysis results of fermented and croquette-fermented diets. Referring to the croquette, results corresponded to amounts reported on the commercial label. Anemia was induced in 10 days after the blood extraction stage. The control group (G0) did not develop anemia.

Table II

Diets proximal analysis made to Wistar rats.

Croquette Fermented
Moisture (%) 9.85±0.36B 76.20±0.12A
Protein (%) 17.56±1.32A 0.56±0.13B
Lipid (%) 22.90±5.51A 15.30±1.31A
Ash (%) 7.91±0.30A 0.40±0.01B
Iron (mg Kg-1) 285.13±16A 7.60±3.48B

[i] Averages for three replicas and standard deviation. Letters indicate statistic groups in lines.

Hb levels were around 8.5-10.0 g/dL and were kept at least by two consecutive measures. Next, the recuperation process started with the diets. Table III shows Hb levels according to different hours and recuperation diets. No significant differences were found between the groups during 120 hours of recuperation.

Table III

Hemoglobin levels on anemia recuperation during 120 hours.

Time (hours) Croquette Fermented Croquette-Fermented
12 9.14±1.28B 9.10±2.01B 12.02±1.18A
24 10.24±1.03A 9.82±1.74A 10.87±0.75A
48 11.22±1.48A 10.7±0.1A 11.53±0.45A
96 11.47±1.92A 12.00±1.56A 14.15±0.35A
120 11.35±2.05A 13.44±0.88A 14.77±1.11A

[i] Averages of eight experimental subjects and standard deviation. Letter indicate statistic groups in lines.

Discussion

In regard to iron and protein concentration, the fermented was the diet with lower levels; this data was of special interest because even the fermented group did not have a balanced formula with the croquette. It did not indicate a significant difference in recuperation. However, it did indicate a beneficial possible effect of fermented in Hb.

Benefits of fermented beet and non-fermented beet have been reported and indicated that they could have a significant incidence on anemia recuperation. Saccharose, glucose, fructose, citric acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, polyphenols, vitamin C, betalains and other compounds may be related to the production and stability of hemoglobin (Keven et al., 2003; Moreno et al., 2007; Bavec et al., 2010). In humans, beet regulates the blood pressure (Hobbs et al., 2012; Moreno et al., 2008).

Moreover, the benefits by the using of Lactobacillus sporogenes as a probiotic have been reported and ferments with Lactobacillus acidophilus demonstrated are potentiates bioavailability of iron and can result in the reduction of oxidative stress in red blood cells in models animal with mice and rats (Oda et al., 1994; Endres et al., 2009; Kaushal & Kansal, 2012).

Conclusions

Anemia recuperation with fermented beet diet may be due to one or more factors, for this reason, more studies are necessary. Our recommendations are to generate fermented combinations to evaluate the effects on anemia using other vegetables or through other kinds of bacteria.

References

1 

Arango, R. Á., Vélez, A. C. M., Jaramillo, G. Y., Hernández, S. Á. & Valencia, R. M. A. (2012). Cuantificación de hierro ferroso en espinaca y harina fortificada: una aplicación para la industria de panificación. Journal of Engineering and Technology, 1, 26-33. http://repository.lasallista.edu.co:8080/ojs/index.php/jet/article/viewFile/202/380

R. Á. Arango A. C. M. Vélez G. Y. Jaramillo S. Á. Hernández R. M. A. Valencia 2012Cuantificación de hierro ferroso en espinaca y harina fortificada: una aplicación para la industria de panificaciónJournal of Engineering and Technology12633http://repository.lasallista.edu.co:8080/ojs/index.php/jet/article/viewFile/202/380

2 

Bavec, M., Turinek, M., Grobelnik-Mlakar, S., Slatnar, A. & Bavec, F. (2010). Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 11825-11831. DOI: 10.1021/jf103085p

M. Bavec M. Turinek S. Grobelnik-Mlakar A. Slatnar F. Bavec 2010Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel)Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry58118251183110.1021/jf103085p

3 

Bolkent, S., Yanardag, R., Tabakoglu-Oguz, A. & Ozsoy-Saçan, O. (2000). Effects of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) extract on pancreatic B cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacolog, 73, 251-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00328-7

S. Bolkent R. Yanardag A. Tabakoglu-Oguz O. Ozsoy-Saçan 2000Effects of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) extract on pancreatic B cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical studyJournal of Ethnopharmacolog73251259https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00328-7

4 

Brabin, B. J., Hakimi, M. & Pelletier, D. (2001). An Analysis of Anemia and Pregnancy-Related Maternal Mortality. Journal of Nutrition, 131, 604S-615S. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/2/604S.full

B. J. Brabin M. Hakimi D. Pelletier 2001An Analysis of Anemia and Pregnancy-Related Maternal MortalityJournal of Nutrition131604S615Shttp://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/2/604S.full

5 

Endres, J. R., Clewell, A., Jade, K.A., Farber, T., Hauswirth, J. & Schauss, A.G. (2009). Safety assessment of a proprietary preparation of a novel Probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, as a food ingredient. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 1231-1238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.02.018

J. R. Endres A. Clewell K.A. Jade T. Farber J. Hauswirth A.G. Schauss 2009Safety assessment of a proprietary preparation of a novel Probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, as a food ingredientFood and Chemical Toxicology4712311238https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.02.018

6 

Hobbs, D. A., Kaffa N., George, T. W., Methven, L. & Lovegrove, J. A. (2012). Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects. British Journal of Nutrition , 108, 2066-2074. DOI:10.1017/S0007114512000190

D. A. Hobbs N. Kaffa T. W. George L. Methven J. A. Lovegrove 2012Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjectsBritish Journal of Nutrition1082066207410.1017/S0007114512000190

7 

Jaiswal, A., Ganeshpukar, A., Awasthi, A., Bansal, D. & Dubey, N. (2014). Protective effects of beetroot extract against phenyl hydrazine induce anemia in rats. Pharmacognosy Journal, 6, 1-5. DOI:10.5530/pj.2014.5.1

A. Jaiswal A. Ganeshpukar A. Awasthi D. Bansal N. Dubey 2014Protective effects of beetroot extract against phenyl hydrazine induce anemia in ratsPharmacognosy Journal61510.5530/pj.2014.5.1

8 

Kapadia, G. J., Azuine, M. A., Rao, G. S., Arai, T., Iida, A. & Tokuda, H. (2011). Cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract compared to doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in the human prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 11, 280-284

G. J. Kapadia M. A. Azuine G. S. Rao T. Arai A. Iida H. Tokuda 2011Cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract compared to doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in the human prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell linesAnti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry11280284

9 

Kaushal, D. & Kansal, V. K. (2012): Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum alleviates age-inflicted oxidative stress and improves expression of biomarkers of ageing in mice. Molecular Biology Reports, 39, 1791-1799. DOI 10.1007/s11033-011-0920-1

D. Kaushal V. K. Kansal 2012Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum alleviates age-inflicted oxidative stress and improves expression of biomarkers of ageing in miceMolecular Biology Reports391791179910.1007/s11033-011-0920-1

10 

Keven, K., Kutlay, S., Nergizoglu, G. & Ertürk, S. (2003). Randomized, crossover study of the effect of vitamin C on EPO response in hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 41, 1233-1239. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6386(03)00356-1

K. Keven S. Kutlay G. Nergizoglu S. Ertürk 2003Randomized, crossover study of the effect of vitamin C on EPO response in hemodialysis patientsAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases4112331239https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6386(03)00356-1

11 

Moreno, D. A., García-Viguera, C. & Gil-Izquierdo, J. (2008). Betalains in the era of global agri-food science, technology and nutritional health. Phytochemistry Reviews, 7, 261-280. DOI 10.1007/s11101-007-9084-y

D. A. Moreno C. García-Viguera J. Gil-Izquierdo 2008Betalains in the era of global agri-food science, technology and nutritional healthPhytochemistry Reviews726128010.1007/s11101-007-9084-y

12 

Moreno, M., Betancourt, M., Pitre, A., García, D., Belén, D. & Medina, C. (2007). Evaluación de la estabilidad de bebidas cítricas acondicionadas con dos fuentes naturales de betalaínas: tuna y remolacha. Bioagro, 19, 149-159. http://www.redalyc.org/html/857/85719305/

M. Moreno M. Betancourt A. Pitre D. García D. Belén C. Medina 2007Evaluación de la estabilidad de bebidas cítricas acondicionadas con dos fuentes naturales de betalaínas: tuna y remolachaBioagro19,149159http://www.redalyc.org/html/857/85719305/

13 

Murphy, M., Eliot, K., Heuertz, R. M. & Weiss, E. (2012). Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112, 548-552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2011.12.002

M. Murphy K. Eliot R. M. Heuertz E. Weiss 2012Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performanceJournal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics112548552https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2011.12.002

14 

Oda, T., Kado-Oka, Y. & Hasibha, H. (1994). Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on iron bioavailability in rats. Journal of Nutrition al Science and Vitaminology, 40, 613-616. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jnsv1973/40/6/40_6_613/_pdf

T. Oda Y. Kado-Oka H. Hasibha 1994Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on iron bioavailability in ratsJournal of Nutrition al Science and Vitaminology40613616https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jnsv1973/40/6/40_6_613/_pdf

15 

Shander, A., Javidroozi, M., Ozawa, S. & Hare, G. M. T. (2011). What is really dangerous: anaemia or transfusion? British Journal of Anaesthesia, 107, i41-i59. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aer350

A. Shander M. Javidroozi S. Ozawa G. M. T. Hare 2011What is really dangerous: anaemia or transfusion?British Journal of Anaesthesia107i41i59https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aer350

16 

Siervo, M., Lara, J., Ogbonmwan, I. & Mathers, J. C. (2013). Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Nutrition , 143, 818-826. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/early/2013/04/16/jn.112.170233

M. Siervo J. Lara I. Ogbonmwan J. C. Mathers 2013Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysisJournal of Nutrition143818826http://jn.nutrition.org/content/early/2013/04/16/jn.112.170233

17 

Stoltzfus, R. J. (2001). Defining iron-deficiency anemia in public health terms: a time for reflection. Journal of Nutrition , 131, 565S-567S. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/2/565S.full.pdf+html

R. J. Stoltzfus 2001Defining iron-deficiency anemia in public health terms: a time for reflectionJournal of Nutrition131565S567Shttp://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/2/565S.full.pdf+html

18 

Váli, L., Stefanovits-Bányai, E., Szentmihályi, K., Fébel, H., Sárdi, E., Lugasi, A., Kocsis, I. & Blázovics, A. (2007). Liver-protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) during ischemia-reperfusion. Nutrition, 23, 172-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2006.11.004

L. Váli E. Stefanovits-Bányai K. Szentmihályi H. Fébel E. Sárdi A. Lugasi I. Kocsis A. Blázovics 2007Liver-protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) during ischemia-reperfusionNutrition23172178https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2006.11.004

19 

Vulić, J. J., Ćebović, T. N., Čanadanović, V. M., Ćetkovi, G. S., Djilas, S. M., Čanadanović-Brunet, J. M., Velićanski, A. S., Cvetković, D. D. & Tumbas, V. T. (2013). Antiradical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of commercial beetroot pomace. Food & Function, 4, 713-721. DOI: 10.1039/C3FO30315B

J. J. Vulić T. N. Ćebović V. M. Čanadanović G. S. Ćetkovi S. M. Djilas J. M. Čanadanović-Brunet A. S. Velićanski D. D. Cvetković V. T. Tumbas 2013Antiradical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of commercial beetroot pomaceFood & Function471372110.1039/C3FO30315B



This display is generated from NISO JATS XML with jats-html.xsl. The XSLT engine is libxslt.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Financiado por:

 

Proyecto C-290903

Licencia Creative Commons
TIP Revista Especializada en Ciencias Químico-Biológicas está distribuido bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional.

TIP REVISTA ESPECIALIZADA EN CIENCIAS QUÍMICO-BIOLÓGICAS, Volumen 23, 2020, es una publicación editada por la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Deleg. Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, Ciudad de México, México, a través de la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Campus I, Av. Guelatao # 66, Col. Ejército de Oriente, Deleg. Iztapalapa, C.P. 09230, Ciudad de México, México, Teléfono: 55.56.23.05.27, http://tip.zaragoza.unam.mx, Correo electrónico revistatip@yahoo.com, Editor responsable: Dra. Martha Asunción Sánchez Rodríguez, Certificado de Reserva de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo del Título No. 04-2014-062612263300-203, ISSN: 2395-8723 ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor, Responsable de la última actualización de este número Claudia Ahumada Ballesteros, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Av. Guelatao # 66, Col. Ejército de Oriente, Deleg. Iztapalapa, C.P. 09230, Ciudad de México, México, fecha de la última modificación, 28 de julio de 2020.

Esta página puede ser reproducida con fines no lucrativos, siempre y cuando no se mutile, se cite la fuente completa y su dirección electrónica. De otra forma requiere permiso previo de la institución.